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Хронические респираторные заболевания и потребление табака. Обзор

https://doi.org/10.21518/2079-701X-2016-17-144-152

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Аннотация

Хронические респираторные заболевания (ХРЗ), и в частности хроническая обструктивная болезнь легких (ХОБЛ), представляют серьезную медико-социальную проблему во всем мире, отражая тенденции роста заболеваемости и смертности от болезней, связанных с потреблением табака. Курение табака – основной и единственный модифицируемый фактор риска развития ХРЗ, в т. ч. ХОБЛ. Современное понимание проблемы подсказывает, что ХОБЛ развивается у 50% потребителей табака, а не у 15, как считалось ранее, и что заболевание может зародиться еще до рождения и в раннем детстве индивидуума, и понимание механизмов развития заболевания исключительно важно для своевременного предупреждения этих болезней. Профилактика ХРЗ, и в частности ХОБЛ, должна быть направлена на преодоление потребления табака с учетом всех остальных факторов риска развития этих болезней. Современные программы преодоления курения включают поведенческую консультативную поддержку в сочетании с фармакотерапией такими препаратами первой линии, как НЗТ или варениклин. Пациенты с ХОБЛ нуждаются в большей помощи, чем здоровые курильщики, а вмешательства по прекращению потребления табака – самая затратно-эффективная мера для сокращения темпов падения легочной функции и снижения заболеваемости и смертности от этой болезни. 

Об авторе

М. Г. Гамбарян
Государственный научно-исследовательский центр профилактической медицины Минздрава России, Москва
Россия
к.м.н.


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Для цитирования:


Гамбарян М.Г. Хронические респираторные заболевания и потребление табака. Обзор. Медицинский Совет. 2016;(17):144-152. https://doi.org/10.21518/2079-701X-2016-17-144-152

For citation:


Gambaryan M.G. Chronic respiratory disease and tobacco consumption. Review. Medical Council. 2016;(17):144-152. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.21518/2079-701X-2016-17-144-152

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